Ramphastos momota Linnaeus, 1766
The Amazonian motmot (Momotus momota) is a colorful near-passerine bird in the family Momotidae. It is found in the Amazon lowlands and low Andean foothills from eastern Venezuela to eastern Brazil and northeastern Argentina.
Taxonomy and systematics
The Amazonian motmot and the blue-capped (Momotus coeruleiceps), whooping (M. subrufrescens), Trinidad (M. bahamensis), Lesson's (M. lessonii), and Andean motmots (M. aequatorialis) were all at one time considered conspecific. The Amazonian motmot has nine recognized subspecies; they are listed in the "Distribution and habitat" section below.
The Amazonian motmot's plumage varies among the subspecies. The bodies of all are shades of green. All have a long tail that has extended feathers with racquet tips that are green or black. Most have a black eyemask, though their size and shape differ. The central crown is black and surrounded or partially bordered by a blue band. The nominate subspecies has a chestnut nape. Momotus momota ignobilis and M. m. cametensis have more extensive chestnut on the neck and face.
Distribution and habitat
The Amazonian motmot is widely distributed in South America east of the Andes. Nine subspecies are recognized:
- Momotus momota momota - eastern Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, and northern Brazil
- M. m. microstephanus - southeastern Colombia, eastern Ecuador, and northwestern Brazil
- M. m. ignobilis - eastern Peru and western Brazil
- M. m. nattereri - northeasten Bolivia
- M. m. simplex - western to west central Brazil south of the Amazon
- M. m. cametensis - north central Brazil
- M. m. parensis - northeastern Brazil
- M. m. marcgravianus - eastern Brazil
- M. m. pilcomajensis - southern Bolivia, southern Brazil, and northwestern Argentina
Throughout its range the Amazonian motmot inhabits the interior and edges of humid lowand forest. It is found up to 1,200 m (3,900 ft) in Venezuela, to 1,000 m (3,300 ft) in Ecuador, and to 750 m (2,460 ft) in Peru.
- BirdLife International (2016). "Amazonian Motmot Momotus momota". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
- Gill, F.; Donsker, D.; Rasmussen, P. (January 2021). "IOC World Bird List (v 11.1)". Retrieved January 14, 2021.
- Remsen, J. V., Jr., J. I. Areta, E. Bonaccorso, S. Claramunt, A. Jaramillo, D. F. Lane, J. F. Pacheco, M. B. Robbins, F. G. Stiles, and K. J. Zimmer. Version 19 January 2021. A classification of the bird species of South America. American Ornithological Society. https://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm retrieved January 19, 2021
- Orzechowski, S. C. and T. S. Schulenberg (2020). Amazonian Motmot (Momotus momota), version 1.0. In Birds of the World (T. S. Schulenberg, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.bucmot4.01 retrieved May 5, 2021
- Stiles, F. Gary (2009). "A review of the genus Momotus (Coraciiformes:Momotidae) in Northern South America and adjacent areas" (PDF). Ornitología Colombiana. 8: 29–75. ISSN 1794-0915. Retrieved May 5, 2021.