Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
|26th Ottoman Sultan (Emperor)|
|Reign||30 October 1757 – 21 January 1774|
|Successor||Abdul Hamid I|
|Born||28 January 1717|
Edirne Palace, Edirne, Ottoman Empire
|Died||21 January 1774 (aged 56)|
Topkapı Palace, Istanbul, Ottoman Empire
Mustafa III (//; Ottoman Turkish: مصطفى ثالث Muṣṭafā-yi sālis; 28 January 1717 – 21 January 1774) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1757 to 1774. He was a son of Sultan Ahmed III (1703–30), and his consort Mihrişah Kadın. He was succeeded by his brother Abdul Hamid I (1774–89).
Mustafa was born at the Edirne Palace on 28 January 1717. His father was Sultan Ahmed III, and his mother was Mihrişah Kadın. He had a full brother named, Şehzade Süleyman. In 1720, a large fifteen days circumcision ceremony took place for Mustafa, and his brothers, princes Süleyman, Mehmed, and Bayezid. In 1730, after the Patrona Halil revolt, led to the deposition of his father Sultan Ahmed, and the succession of his cousin Sultan Mahmud I, Mustafa, his father, and brothers were all locked up in the Topkapı Palace.
Mustafa was trying to be protected from assassinations by producing antidotes and resorting to the methods of scientific interest (astrology) that he was very interested in. According to the rumor, he had been zeed several times and managed to escape. With his suspicious death of his half-brother Mehmed, who was 14 days older than him, in 1756, he became the oldest of the princes in the cage. 
He traveled frequently and started to check whether the laws he had enforced were followed.  In February 1758, Mustafa launched a ship named Hısn-ı Bahri. He released prisoners from prison and the guards give them reminder that creditors should pay their debts.  In June 1758, when Ayşe Sultan’s husband Silahdar Mehmed Pasha returned from a journey Mustafa arranged dinner for him in Bahariye Mansion. He also met his sister Esma Sultan in her palace. 
The Grand Vizier Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha, who had a partnership with the corruption of Kethüdası Ahmed Efendi, was dismissed on 28 March 1765 and remained under arrest for two days. He was then exiled to Lesbos and executed there. Muhsinzade Mehmed Pasha became grand vizier. In April, Bozok Mutasamfi Çapanoğlu Ahmed Pasha, who was executed for his persecution, was brought to Istanbul and exhibited in front of Bab-i Humayun. 
Character of Mustafa's rule
Soon after his accession to the throne, Mustafa demonstrated a special care for justice. He took a number of measures to increase prosperity in Istanbul. He regulated coinage, built large grain stores, maintained aqueducts, and established a strict fiscal policy.
Treaty with Prussia
Mustafa much admired the Frederick the Great's generalship, and in 1761 established a peace treaty with Prussia. Frederick wanted an alliance against the Habsburgs, and Mustafa wanted to modernize his state and army. Mustafa preferred recruiting his officers in Berlin, rather than in Paris and London, to re-organize his army. In 1763, the two countries exchanged their diplomats for the first time.
Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774)
Koca Ragıp Pasha, who remained grand vizier until 1763, pursued a peace policy towards neighboring countries. But the increasing influence of Russia over the Caucasus and its intention to control Poland created tension between the Ottomans and Russia. Ragıp Pasha's successor Muhsinzade Mehmed Pasha also preferred to remain at peace, and Mustafa's insistence on war with Russia led to his resignation in 1768. The Sultan expected to gain an easy victory over the Russians, but in fact the Ottomans were unprepared for a long war. During the war, military reforms were undertaken, with the assistance of French officer François Baron de Tott. They included the modernization of artillery corps and the foundation of the Naval Engineering School in 1773. The war was disastrous for the Ottoman Empire. The Russian armies occupied the Crimea, Romania and parts of Bulgaria.
Many monumental buildings including the Fatih Mosque, which was built by Mehmed the Conqueror was rebuilt from the ground during his reign. In addition, he had built Laleli Mosque complex, and the shore along the Yenikapı filled to set up a new neighborhood. Apart from these, he undertook other construction projects after the earthquakes of 1766.
Dressing of Mustafa III
If a different form of clothing is adopted from the previous sultans, Mustafa III chose a flat form with a flat surface, reminiscent of the ulema, and a long sorrow with a diamond with a diamond on top of it. 
He was a poet, his poetry being written under the pseudonym of Cihangir.
“Yıkılupdur bu cihan sanma ki bizde düzele
Devleti çarh-ı deni verdi kamu müptezele
Şimdi erbab-ı saadette gezen hep hazele
İşimiz kaldı hemen merhamet-i lem yezele.”
"This world has ruined, don't even think with us it recovers,
It was the lousy fate that has delivered the power to vulgars,
Now the perfidious ones have populated the Imperial Palace,
It's now the mercy of the everlasting God that runs our business.
Mustafa had five consorts:
- Mihrişah Sultan (died 16 October 1805, buried in Mihrişah Sultan Mausoleum, Eyüp, Istanbul), Senior Imperial Consort;
- Mihrişah Kadın (died 1799, buried in Şah Sultan Mausoleum, Eyüp, Istanbul), Second Imperial Consort;
- Aynülhayat Kadın (died 21 July 1764, buried in Mustafa III Mausoleum, Laleli Mosque, Istanbul), Third Imperial Consort;
- Adilşah Kadın alias Ayşe (died 19 December 1803, buried in Mustafa III Mausoleum, Laleli Mosque, Istanbul), Third Imperial Consort;
- Rif’at Kadın (died 25 December 1804, buried in Haydarpaşa Cemetery, Istanbul), Fourth Imperial Consort;
Mustafa had two sons:
- Selim III (24 December 1761 – 28 July 1808, buried in Mustafa III Mausoleum), with Mihrişah;
- Şehzade Sultan Mehmed (10 January 1767 – 12 October 1772, buried in Mustafa III Mausoleum, Laleli Mosque Istanbul);
Mustafa had seven daughters:
- Hibetullah Sultan (14 March 1759 – 7 June 1762, buried in Mustafa III Mausoleum, Laleli Mosque, Istanbul), with Mihrişah, betrothed on 2 June 1759 to Mahir Hamza Pasha;
- Şah Sultan (20 April 1761 – 11 March 1803, buried in Şah Sultan Mausoleum, Eyüp, Istanbul), with Mihrişah, married on 6 November 1778, Damad Seyyid Mustafa Pasha;
- Mihrimah Sultan (5 February 1762 – 16 March 1764, buried in Mustafa III Mausoleum, Laleli Mosque, Istanbul), with Aynülhayat;
- Mihrişah Sultan (9 December 1762 – 21 February 1769, buried in Mustafa III Mausoleum, Laleli Mosque, Istanbul);
- Beyhan Sultan (15 December 1765 – 7 November 1824, buried in Mihrişah Sultan Mausoleum, Eyüp, Istanbul), with Adilşah, married on 22 April 1784 to Damad Celik Mustafa Pasha;
- Hatice Sultan (14 June 1768 – 17 July 1822, buried in Mihrişah Sultan Mausoleum, Eyüp, Istanbul), with Adilşah, married on 9 November 1786 to Damad Seyyid Ahmed Pasha;
- Fatma Sultan (9 January 1770 – 26 May 1772, buried in Mustafa III Mausoleum, Laleli Mosque, Istanbul), with Mihrişah;
Mustafa died of heart attack on 21 January 1774, at the Topkapı Palace, and was buried in his own mausoleum located at Laleli Mosque, Istanbul. He was succeeded by his brother Abdul Hamid I. His death left the empire struggling with economic and administrative problems.
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- Media related to Mustafa III at Wikimedia Commons
Mustafa IIIBorn: 28 January 1717 Died: 21 January 1774[aged 56]
| Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
30 Oct 1757 – 21 Jan 1774
Abdul Hamid I
|Sunni Islam titles|
| Caliph of the Ottoman Caliphate
30 Oct 1757 – 21 Jan 1774
Abdul Hamid I